Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement by Vicat [Update-2019]

Initial and final setting time of cement by Vicat apparatus is required to find out when cement paste starts it’s chemical reaction and loses it’s plasticity simultaneously. We described full procedure of initial and final setting time test of cement by Vicat apparatus as per IS Code 4031 part 5.

 

What is Initial Setting Time of Cement?

Initial setting time of cement is when the chemical reaction starts between cement and water after mixing of both in required humidity and temperature.

 

What is Final Setting Time of Cement?

Final setting time of cement is when cement loses it’s plasticity and becomes hard after reaction with water.

 

Why Setting Time of Cement Test Required?

There are many reasons to test the initial and final setting time of cement.

Some are listed below.

  1. To know the start time of curing ( because of the heat of hydration ).
  2. To remove the shutter of any structure or concrete cube.
  3. For concrete mix designs.
  4. For a better quality of cement.

 

 

Initial and Final Setting Time IS Code

For the test procedure of initial and final setting time of cement – IS code 4031 part 5.

 

Apparatus and Tools Required for Initial and Final Setting time of Cement

  1. Vicat apparatus and it’s components ( confirming to IS 5513 – 1996 revision ) like plunger, movable rod, graduated scale.
  1. Initial and final setting time of cement needle

Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement

 

All dimensions of vicat apparatus components given in IS 5513

initial and final setting time of cement test by vicat apparatus

 So now we assume that your all doubts are cleared about dimensions of vicat apparatus components.

  1. Two numbers of Trowel ( for mixing cement with water ).
  1. One non-porous plate on which cement and water shall be mixed.
  1. Weighing balance with at least 0.1 gm accuracy because of permissible variation on 300 gm is +/- 0.3 gm, and for 500 gm is +/- 0.35.
  1. Hand gloves for your safety.

 

 

Precautions before proceeding the initial and final setting time of cement test

  1. Vicat apparatus and its components shall be clean, mainly needles.
  1. De-shuttering agent ( lubricant or grease ) shall be applied the inner surface of the vicat mould.
  1. Non-porous plate and trowels shall be clean before the test, we should not use trowels and non-porous plate in wet condition, this moisture may affect the test result.
  1. The temperature of the room where the initial and final setting test is going to be done shall be 27 +/- 2-degree centigrade means between 25 to 29.
  1. Like temperature, Humidity is also an important factor, humidity shall be 65 +/- 5 percent, which means between 60 to 70.

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Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement Procedure

  1. Take 400 grams of cement.
  1. Water content percent will be 85 percent of the consistency of cement.

Example :

if consistency is 28 percent

cement = 400 gm, water %= 28 * 85 % = 23.8

so water content = 400 * 23.8 % = 95.2 gram.

or

in a easy way, use 85 percent of water you used for consistency

cement = 400 gram, water = 112 * 85 % = 95.2 gram. ( If consistency is 28 percent, 400*28%=112 gram )

  1. Mixing time is same as consistency test 3 to 5 minutes, it will start when you add water in cement and finish when cement paste shall be filled in Vicat mould. ( important )
  1. Start the stopwatch and add water in cement simultaneously.
  1. Mix properly by using both trowels, it is very important.
  1. After mixing well, Vicat mould shall be filled by that cement paste by slightly shaking or slightly struck the mould. Be ensure that no voids are in the paste.
  1. After filling the mould with cement paste, Vicat mould with paste shall be placed in the Vicat apparatus.
  1. Already initial setting time needle ( which has 1.13 mm diameter ) shall be fixed in Vicat apparatus.

 

How to Check 

  1. As we described before the initial setting time limit is minimum 30 minutes so we can test after 30 minutes, Lower the Vicat plunger slowly until the initial setting time needle bottom point touches the cement paste top surface filled in Vicat mould.

 

  1. Release the plunger quickly, let it sink in the paste, when it stops sinking ( nearly 3 to 4 seconds ) note down the reading from the graduated scale.

 

  1. Wait until you get 5 +/- 0.5 mm means 4.5 to 5.5 mm reading on a graduated scale.

 

  1. Note down initial setting time in minutes from water adding time. It is the initial setting time of cement Vicat apparatus.

 

  1. For final setting time wait until only needles spot comes on cement paste not circle from final setting needle.

 

In this image below you can the significance of initial and final setting time of cement.

 

initial and final setting time of cement test by vicat apparatus

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Report and Calculation of Initial and Final Setting time of Cement

cement (gm) water (%) initial setting time(min) final setting time(min)

         400           23.8                     142                              265

 

Our Initial and Final Setting Time Practical Video

 

What is the Initial and Final setting time of Ordinary Portland Cement

Initial Setting Time of Cement Limit

For ordinary portland cement, the initial setting time limit is a minimum of 30 minutes.

 

Final Setting Time of Cement Limit

For ordinary portland cement, the final setting time limit is a maximum of 600 minutes.

 

Initial and Final Setting Time of Different Cement

Cement TypeInitial Setting Time, minute (min.)Final Setting Time, minute (max.)
OPC(33)30600
OPC(43)30600
OPC(53)30600
SRC30600
PPC30600
RHPC30600
PSC30600
High alumina30600
Super sulfated30600
Low heat60600
Masonry cement901440
IRS-T-4060600

 

Viva Questions on Initial and Final Setting time of Cement

Q.1  What is the initial setting time of OPC cement?

Ans. The initial setting time of cement is a minimum of 30 minutes.

 

Q.2  What is the final setting time of OPC cement?

Ans. The final setting time of OPC cement is a maximum of 600 minutes ( 10 hours ).

 

Q.3  What is dia and length of the needle to check the initial setting time?

Ans. The dia and length of the needle of the initial setting time are 1 mm and 50 mm.

 

Q.4  How to calculate the required water for the initial and final setting time?

Ans. Required water for initial and final setting time = water added for standard consistency * 0.85

means if you added 116 grams of water for standard consistency,

then required water for initial and final setting time is 116 * 0.85 = 98.6 gram. 

 

Q.5  What is the IS code for Initial and final setting time test procedure?

Ans. IS 4031 part 5

 

Any other question? Just ask in comment. We are waiting to reply.

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Read More:

Consistency Test of Cement by Vicat apparatus [Update-2019]

Compressive Strength of Cement [Update-2019]

Soundness Test of Cement Procedure by Le chatelier apparatus

Concrete Mix Design – M40, M60 as per IS [Update-2019]

CBR Test of Soil Procedure, Calculation & Graph

Asphalt Road Construction Procedure

 

Students Corner

Normal concrete is not attacked or damaged by water, but reinforced concrete (RC) can be damaged by water. 

The initial setting time for an ideal cement mix is ​​about 30 minutes for almost all types of cement. 

The final setting time of the ideal cement mixture should be 10 hours at max. 

The setting time is the time required to cure the cement paste to a defined consistency. 

The initial setting time is the time when the paste begins to lose its plasticity. 

The testing of the initial hardening time is important for the transport, introduction and compaction of cement concrete.

The setting time is the time required to cure the cement paste to a defined consistency. 

The initial setting time is the time when the paste begins to lose its plasticity. 

The testing of the initial hardening time is important for the transport, introduction and compaction of cement concrete.

 

The main function of sand in mortar or gypsum is to provide core strength, but it also has other benefits. 

If water is mixed with binder without adding sand to the mixture, the strength of the mixture may be drastically lower than when mixed with added sand. It can also help prevent mortar shrinkage, increase density and facilitate setting. 

 

The main task of sand (aggregate) in mortar or gypsum is to ensure core strength, but it also has other benefits. 

If water is mixed with binder without adding sand to the mixture, both the compressive and tensile strength of the mixture would be drastically lower than when mixed with added sand. 

 

It also helps to prevent the mortar from shrinking, increasing the density and helping to set it. 

 

A cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that hardens, adheres and bonds to other materials. Cement is rarely used alone but serves to bind together sand and gravel (aggregates).

Cement is used with fine aggregates for the production of mortar for masonry or with sand and gravel aggregates for the production of concrete.

 

Lime is an important component of cement and its content must be carefully observed. 

Excessive lime makes the cement dirty and causes the cement to expand and disintegrate. 

On the other hand, if there is a lime deficiency, the strength of the cement decreases and the cement hardens quickly. 

In a strength test, we test the metallic sound by hitting two stones against each other. 

The void ratio is the ratio of void volume to the volume of solids.

Therefore, it is important to have an in-depth knowledge of these fundamental questions.

The initial setting time was based on the sample which withstood a 113.4 g load applied using a needle diameter of 2.11 mm. 

The time from the time of mixing and the time at which the 113.4 g needle did not mark the surface with a complete circular well was considered to be the initial time.

The final setting time was carried out using the same method, but using a load of 453.6 g and a needle diameter of 1.06 mm. 

Seven replicates were used to evaluate the initial and final setting time measurements for each of the cement.

 

Doctors should wait 10 minutes before using another direct restoration when using Prorootmta, as MTA will be able to achieve its highest physical properties within a clinically feasible timeframe during this period. 

 

Rheology as a method for assessing the setting time offers several advantages over the impression test. 

First, rheometers exert pressure on the cement that is controlled by a machine while impressing is based on the human tester’s letting the tester drop a weighted needle a minimum distance from the cement without touching the cement prior to its release.

 

The setting time is the time required to cure the cement paste to a defined consistency. 

The initial setting time is the time when the paste begins to lose its plasticity. 

The testing of the initial hardening time is important for the transport, introduction and compaction of cement concrete.

 

Initial and Final Setting Time for Cement 

The initial setting time of cement is 30 minutes for normal Portland cement. 

The final setting time for cement is 600 minutes or an average of 10 hours for normal Portland cement. 

On this latter basis, the setting of cement is distinguished into the initial and final setting, which are qualified by the time required. 

 

In the construction industry, contractors and cement suppliers often talk about the initial and final consolidation time of concrete. 

Each type of cement has different effects on the beginning and final consolidation time of the concrete. 

The initial setting time is the exact time that the concrete begins to harden. 

PC significantly reduced both the beginning and end sets of pastes.

The most significant trend was observed in terms of shortening the final setting time. 

As the amount of WSA increases (and therefore the number of delay increases), the time period between the initial and final adjustments shows a significant reduction. 

 

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