Particle Size Distribution of Soil Procedure [Update-2019]

Particle size distribution of soil procedure is required to define soil particle size present in it. By soil gradation, we find out particle sizes and soil profile. We described the procedure of particle size distribution of soil.

Particle size distribution of soil, soil gradation, grain size analysis and wet sieve analysis test of soil are the same test with various names.

 

What is Meant by Particle Size Distribution of Soil?

Particle Size Distribution of Soil describes the distribution of particle size present in it, Specially gravel content, coarse sand content, fine sand content, silt, and clay content.

 

Importance of Particle Size Distribution of Soil

  1. To know the particles size which soil contain, like gravel, coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay.
  2. For property of given soil.
  3. For the soil profile.

 Types of soil, properties and uses in construction

 

IS code for Particle Size Distribution of Soil

The IS code for particle size distribution of soil is IS2720 part4.

 

Apparatus and Tools required?

  1. IS Sieves 4.75 mm, 2.0 mm, 425 microns, 75 microns.
  2. Weighing balance ( capacity minimum 3000 gram and least count 0.01 gram.
  3. Bucket
  4. Tray
  5. Hot air oven to maintain the temperature of 100 to 110-degree centigrade.

 

Determination of Particle Size Distribution of Soil by Sieve Analysis

  • Before start the test place the soil sample in hot air oven for 24 hours.
  • Soil must be dried before test, after 24 hours let it cool in atmosphere for minimum 15 minutes.
  • Sample weight for grain size analysis test is depend on it’s maximum particle size. So we are providing a some sample weight depend on some particle size
Particle maximum size available in soil (mm) Sample weight (kg)
7560
4025
2513
196.5
12.53.5
10.01.5
6.50.75
4.750.4

 

  • So take the dry soil weight as per maximum particles size. Note down as Total weight.
  • Keep it in a bucket or deep tray.
  • Fill the water to submerge the soil sample in bucket up to 50 to 60 mm height from the top surface of soil.
  • Leave it for 24 hours.
  • After 24 hours, take 75 microns sieve and sieve this soil mixed with water carefully.
  • For sieve, take some soil mix in sieve and pour clean water in sieve, move your fingers in the sieve round and round to make water move in sieve, so water will fall through sieve.

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Note : No any soil particles must be fall outside while sieving.
  • Keep pouring water until clean water passes through sieve.
  • Then place some more soil mix in sieve and then add clean water in sieve.
  • Repeat this procedure until all soil mix washed in 75 microns sieve.
  • Pour all soil by washing the bucket or tray with water so no soil particles will remain in bucket.

Particle Size Distribution of Soil

  • At last ensure that clean water passing through the sieve.
  • Place this washed soil particles in a tray.
  • Keep this tray in hot air oven for 24 hours.
  • Maintain the temperature in hot air oven between 100 to 110 degree centigrade.
  • Keep out the tray from hot air oven after 24 hours and allow it to be cool in atmosphere for minimum 15 minutes.
  • Take sieves 4.75 mm, 2.0 mm, 425 microns, 75 microns.
  • Start sieving by 4.75 mm first and note down the retained weight.
  • It is like sieve analysis.
  • Note down the retained weight on each sieve.

Particle Size Distribution

Report and Calculation of Particle Size Distribution

Example :

Total weight – 1500 grams

IS Sieve (mm)retained wt (gm)retained wt(%)rtnd wt cum (%)passing (%)
4.751429.479.4790.57
2.0018312.221.6778.33
0.42526417.639.2760.73
0.07532721.861.0738.92

particle size distribution of soil –

gravel content – 9.47 %

sand content – 51.60 %

silt and clay content – 38.93 %

 

Practical Video for Particle Size Distribution procedure, report, and calculation

 

Viva Questions on Particle Size Distribution of Soil

Q.1  What is sieve analysis of soil?

Ans. The sieve analysis of soil is, to find out the percentage of gravels, sand, and silt and clay.

 

Q.2  What is the IS code for particle size distribution of soil or grain size analysis?

Ans. IS code for particle size distribution of soil is IS 2720 part 4.

 

Q.3  Which sieves are required for particle size distribution of soil?

Ans. These sieves are required 

  1. 4.75 mm
  2. 2.0 mm
  3. 425 micron
  4. 75 micron 

Any Other Question? Ask in comment. We are waiting.

Hope you found good information here.

We bring new test videos and procedures here.

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Read More:

Standard Proctor Test & Modified Proctor Procedure 2019

Liquid Limit Test of Soil Procedure by casagrande 2019

Plastic Limit Test of Soil Procedure [Update-2019]

Types of Soil, Properties & Uses in Construction

CBR Test of Soil Procedure, Calculation & Graph

Concrete Mix Design – M40, M60 as per IS [Update-2019]

 

Student Corner

The particle size distribution (psd) is a basic physical property of soils that can be described by the psd curve of the cumulative particle percentage versus the log of the particle size. 

In the practice of particle size analysis, only limited cumulative particle percentage data are available versus particle size. 

Traditionally, these limited data were recorded in semilogarithmic coordinates, and then these points were smoothly hand-joined to produce a smooth and monotonous PSD curve. 

After creating a PSD curve, the cumulative non-measured size percentage and the characteristic particle size corresponding to the specified cumulative percentage can be graphically estimated from the curve. 

To overcome the subjectivity of the hands-free PSD curve, regression and interpolation methods and similarity methods were used to estimate cumulative particle percentages for unmeasured particle sizes. 

In general, cumulative particle percentages for limited sizes are available from soil particle size analysis. 

For example, suppose points () were available with the cumulative particle percentage equal to the particle size. 

Since the particle size covers several orders of magnitude and the PSD curve is plotted in semilogarithmic coordinates, the logarithm of the particle size () was used in the interpolation. 

Sedimentation methods assume a single particle density, which is a major source of error, whereas ldm is independent of particle density. 

The deviation from sphericity, however, is the major factor that affects both methods differently. 

Therefore, particles tend to be assigned larger proportions of the PSD, resulting in a smaller clay fraction. 

On the other hand, nonspherical particles in the pipette method have longer settling times than their equivalent spheres, leading to an overestimation of the clay fraction. 

Sedimentation methods assume a single particle density, which is a major source of error, whereas ldm is independent of particle density. 

The deviation from sphericity, however, is the major factor that affects both methods differently. 

Therefore, particles tend to be assigned larger proportions of the PSD, resulting in a smaller clay fraction. 

On the other hand, nonspherical particles in the pipette method have longer settling times than their equivalent spheres, leading to an overestimation of the clay fraction. 

 

A typical apparatus disperses the sample in liquid and then measures the density of the column at timed intervals. 

Advantages: This technique determines particle size as a function of settling rate.Disadvantages: The sample must be dispersed in a liquid medium.

Some particles may (partially or completely) dissolve in the medium and change the size distribution.

This requires careful selection of the dispersion medium.

The distribution of particle size can significantly affect the efficiency of each collection device.

In the settling chambers usually, only very large particles accumulate, which can be separated with sieve trays.

In these systems, the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes in contact with a gas stream containing dust particles.

The greater the contact of the gas and liquid streams, the higher the dust removal efficiency.

The hydrometer analysis is based on the principle of sedimentation of soil grains in water. 

When a soil sample is dispersed in water, the particles settle at different rates depending on the shape, size, weight, and viscosity of the water.

For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that all soil particles are spheres. 

The soil texture is classified as loamy sand according to the Usda scheme. 

However, the structural fractions are not available for the ISSS scheme, where the silt-to-sand boundary is 20 mm. 

On the contrary, soil texture fractions of the ISSS schema can be determined directly from the measured data for Soil # 1. 

PM performance is the presence of soils derived from igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks in the transition between domains. 

The occurrence of these soils in the landscape does not follow a clear pattern. 

In addition, the base material layers are not parallel to the horizontal plane. 

Although ELEV describes the overall material influence, this variation is not described.

The two factors of bottoming with the greatest impact are the source material and the topography. 

The overall material influence is reproduced by ELEV because of the predominance of magmatic rock on a hillside and sedimentary rock on a slope. 

Since ELEV explains most of the variance, the influence of the starting material is stronger than that of the topography.

In fact, the gradients and gradients differed in the greater geological homogeneity of the first area. 

At its lower limit, only small areas of soil originating from sandstone occur. 

On the other hand, most of the downslope domain is a younger land surface (deposit area) with greater geological heterogeneity.

Constrained Correspondence Analysis (cca) was used to evaluate the relationship between soil PSD profiles and environment variables with the vegan package. 

Network analytics can be used to show the composition and interactions between multiple elements in communities. 

The entire significant pair was considered to be a network in which a vertex corresponds to a feature and an intersection between two vertices corresponds to significant correlations.

Pms are harder to develop and understand, which can lead to a lack of basic pedological and ecological interpretation of the results (grunwald, 2009). 

The generalized linear models were chosen because of their simple structure, which allows a direct and simple interpretation of the relationship between soil properties and terrain attributes. 

Another alternative concern the predictor variables used to develop the PMs.

The interpolation was done in ArcGIS 9.3 with the command topo to raster.

The attributes were selected according to 1) their relationship to processes affecting the soil psd, and 2) the frequency of use in similar studies.

 

2 Comments

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